Minimum Technical Standards
MU-COM is committed to the admission and matriculation of qualified students and does not discriminate on the basis of race, ethnicity, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, national origin, age or disabilities, and religion. Regarding disabled (or physically challenged) individuals the College will not discriminate against such individuals who are otherwise qualified, but the College expects that minimal technical standards be met by all applicants and students as set forth herein. Students must have the ability to see, hear, and touch independently to optimally assess the physical, mental, and emotional status of patients. Where a deficiency occurs, it must be compensated with the aid of prosthetics to the extent that the student's functioning is equal to that of a non-impaired student. Reasonable adaptations are those that will enable the osteopathic student to function independently and, when necessary, in a team-like fashion with other health professionals in an unimpaired manner.
The following standards reflect what has been determined to be reasonable expectations of osteopathic medical students and physicians in performing common and important functions, keeping in mind the safety and welfare of the patients for whom our graduates will care. Individuals who have any concerns should discuss them with the Assistant/Associate Dean of Clinical Affairs prior to applying.
Observation and Visual Integration
Applicants and students must have sufficient visual capabilities to observe demonstrations, experiments, and laboratory exercises in the basic and clinical sciences, as well as proper evaluation and treatment integration in order to assess asymmetry, range of motion, and tissue color and texture changes.
They must be able to observe a patient accurately at varying distances and with the ability to discern non-verbal communication.
Applicants and students should be able to speak, hear and observe patients in order to elicit information, examine patients, describe changes in mood, activity and posture, and perceive nonverbal communication. They must be able to communicate effectively and sensitively with patients in English.
Communication includes not only speech but also reading and writing. Applicants and students must be able to communicate effectively and efficiently in oral and written form with all members of the health care team in English.
Applicants and students must have sufficient motor function to execute movements reasonably required to provide general care and emergency treatment to patients. Examples of movements reasonably required of physicians include, but are not limited to, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, administration of intravenous medication, the application of pressure to stop bleeding, the opening of obstructed airways, the suturing of simple wounds, the performance of obstetrical maneuvers and osteopathic manipulative medicine. Such actions require coordination of both gross and fine muscular movements, equilibrium and functional use of the senses of touch and vision.
Applicants and students of osteopathic medicine must possess an enhanced ability to use their sensory skills. Individuals with disabilities who have significant tactile sensory or proprioceptive disabilities may require a thorough evaluation to determine if they are otherwise qualified, with or without reasonable accommodation. Such individuals may include those with significant previous burns, sensory motor deficits, cicatrix formation and malformations of the upper extremities.
Strength and Mobility
Medical treatments, such as osteopathic manipulative medicine and cardio pulmonary resuscitation, often require upright posture with sufficient upper and lower extremity and overall body strength and mobility. Individuals with disabilities who have significant limitations in these areas may require evaluation to determine if they are otherwise qualified, with or without reasonable accommodation.
Intellectual, Conceptual, Integrative, and Quantitative Abilities
Applicants and students must be able to concentrate, analyze and interpret data, and make decisions within areas in which there is a reasonable amount of visual and auditory distraction. They must perform these functions under a time limitation and do so under a reasonable amount of stress, as physicians are expected to be able to perform such duties in diverse clinical settings where others may be present and where there is a certain degree of noise. Applicants and students must be able to accurately write prescriptions, accurately perform basic mathematical functions, and accurately and quickly read charts with minimal error in areas where there may be distractions. They also must demonstrate ability to comprehend three-dimensional relationships, and to understand spatial relationships of structures.
Behavioral and Social Attributes
Applicants and students must possess the emotional health required for full utilization of their intellectual abilities, exercise good judgment, and promptly complete all responsibilities attendant to the diagnosis and care of patients and the development of mature, sensitive and effective professional relationships with patients. Applicants and students must be able to tolerate physically taxing workloads and adapt to changing environments, display flexibility and learn to function in the face of uncertainties inherent in the clinical problems of many patients. Compassion, integrity, concern for others, interpersonal skills, interest and motivation are all personal qualities that will be assessed during the admissions and educational processes.
Participation in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Laboratory and Clinical Care Encounters
Active participation in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Laboratories and Clinical Care Encounters is an admission, matriculation and graduation requirement. During Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine laboratory and clinical care encounters, it is imperative to the educational process that the body region being examined and/or treated will need to be exposed for observation, palpation and treatment. The examination and treatment must be conducted in a respectful and professional manner.
The development of palpatory skills used for diagnosis and treatment is significant and required in osteopathic medical schools. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary defines “palpation” as examination with the hands and fingers, touching, feeling or perceiving by the sense of touch. Palpation in the osteopathic educational context is the use of touch to examine the body. Palpatory skills are used in all areas of osteopathic medical practice and are especially important in the evaluation and treatment of the musculoskeletal system.
The development of palpatory skills and ability to perform osteopathic treatments are initiated in the first- and second-year labs. This learning requires active participation in all laboratory sessions where students palpate and will experience palpation by their peers and instructors of both genders to enhance the development of their own palpatory skills. Each student will palpate a variety of people with different body types to simulate the diversity of patients expected in a practice setting. Fingernails must be trimmed so as not to impair palpation or cause discomfort to the person being palpated.
The osteopathic medical profession uses a variety of treatment models through which the student will learn the art, science and skills of osteopathic manipulative treatment. Psychomotor skills are developed by repetition and reinforcement. Reading and observation, while helpful in understanding the didactic concepts, do not develop the skills required to perform palpatory diagnosis and manipulative treatment. Each student is required to actively participate in all skill development sessions.
Dress Code in Osteopathic Principles and Practice Laboratories
The dress requirement in clinical skills training sessions is designed to promote learning by providing optimal access to diagnostic observation and palpatory experience. Wearing inappropriate clothing interferes with a partner’s experience of diagnosis and treatment.
Appropriate attire must be clean and includes:
- Shorts which are several inches above the knee - (no jean shorts, cut-offs, cargo, thick-seamed shorts, spandex, short shorts or knee length shorts)
- T-shirts - both genders will be asked to remove t-shirts while acting as patients.
- Sports bras or bathing suit tops for women - these should expose the spine and ribs (not wide t-back styles).
- Students may wear scrubs (or other apparel approved by the course director) over the laboratory attire when not in the role of the patient.
- When in the role of the patient, each student is expected to remove her/his shoes (no shoes are permitted on the tables).
- Hats or head coverings (other than for religious purposes) are not permitted in lab.
- Religious head coverings must be modified when necessary to allow palpation when they would obscure the immediate area to be examined or treated (e.g., head, neck, upper back). Modifications can include: adjustment of the covering permitting unobstructed palpation beneath the covering; or substitution of a thinner material that allows for adequate evaluation and treatment.
- Each student must be appropriately attired before class begins. Failure to be appropriately attired for class impedes the educational process and will not be tolerated.
Any student with a pre-existing health problem that may preclude examination and/or treatment in a clinical skills laboratory is required to submit a written request for limitation and/or exclusion to the department chair (or designee) and present appropriate medical documentation. A physician member of the department will review this information on a case-by-case basis, and may require additional diagnostic measures. The department member reviewing the case will determine any limitation or exclusion from participation, and the student will be notified in writing of the decision.
Self-Assessment and Meeting Technical Standards
MU-COM is committed to making the accommodations that make a student successful. MU-COM has provided accommodations to many students with various disabilities that have enabled the student to be successful. MU-COM is also committed to a safe and effective environment for patients, MU-COM students, faculty, staff, and visitors. If a student has a question as to his/her ability to meet the minimal technical standards listed above, he or she should contact the Office of Enrollment Management in advance of applying to determine if the standard can be met with accommodations or so reasonable testing may occur in advance. Students must identify to the Office of Enrollment Management, all areas where accommodations are needed in order to be successful in the educational program or where there is question in meeting these technical standards.